Conference: Journey Home

The Association on American Indian Affairs is pleased to announce that the INDIGENOUS INTERNATIONAL REPATRIATION CONFERENCE: “Journey Home: Empowering Indigenous Communities in International Repatriation” will take place this year at the Isleta Resort & Casino in Albuquerque, NM, September 25-26, 2017.  We welcome participants to come together to learn, share and discuss the very important cultural and human rights issue of Indigenous International Repatriation.


Teaching STEM In Ways that Respect and Build Upon Indigenous Peoples’ Rights

What Is The Issue?

Indigenous ways of knowing are sometimes thought to be in opposition to and detrimental to the learning of Western Science or STEM. Consequently, indigenous ways of knowing are rarely engaged to support learning. If STEM learning is to be meaningful and transformative for Indigenous youth, respecting Indigenous peoples rights and related critical issues, including Indigenous STEM, settler-colonialism, and decolonization, must be understood and explicitly addressed in Indigenous youths’ informal and formal STEM learning experiences.

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Webinar: Youth Empowerment Part 1 – Indigenous Food and Healing

Youth Empowerment Part 1: Indigenous Food and Healing

Webinar Date:

Wednesday, June 21, 2017


11 a.m. Alaska
12 p.m. Pacific
12 p.m. Arizona
1 p.m. Mountain
2 p.m. Central
3 p.m. Eastern

About the Webinar

Join the SAMHSA Tribal Training and Technical Assistance (TTA) Center, the Center for Native American Youth, and members of their 2017 Champions for Change class for a three-part webinar series on youth empowerment in Indian Country.

In Part 1 we will welcome Mariah Gladstone, who will discuss her work as founder of Indigikitchen, an online cooking show dedicated to the diets of indigenous communities. She will also discuss the growing understanding of food sovereignty and its connection to wellness in tribal communities.

World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education

World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education 2017 Theme: “A Celebration of Resilience” to be held July 24th – July 28th, 2017.

Six Nations Polytechnic and TAP Resources are excited to host the World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education – the most prestigious Indigenous education event the world has to offer!

​We are very grateful to the Native Hawaiian Education Association, WIPCE 2014 host, for their kindness, generosity, wisdom and most of all, their friendship as we transition to 2017.

​Our team is working hard to plan an exceptional experience that showcases Indigenous peoples of this territory and beyond, with assistance from Tourism Toronto, sponsors, and community partners.​​

Let the adventure begin – We look forward to sharing an exciting and unforgettable experience with you in Toronto, 2017!

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“The Fire That is Beginning to Stand”: Teaching Historical Trauma at Stone Child College

History at its best helps the present make sense of the past. History at its best tells the nation’s story through the voices of all the people. These voices enlighten and provide wise counsel for the present, creating healthy and creative communities. History at its worst not only ignores the different voices, but eliminates them altogether. The resulting silence lives on and is seen and heard in the painful, dehumanizing community stories etched out regularly on American Indian reservations today. Yes, history at its worst is the narrative lived and experienced currently by the Indigenous peoples in the United States. This aftermath of the near extinction of the original peoples is still felt today, and its adverse effects are carried down from generation to generation. This phenomenon is known as historical trauma. In order to combat its adverse effects, it is critical to create new stories that are alive with the hope and determination reflective of a rich past that is not entirely lost.

Beginning in 2013, Stone Child College (SCC) engaged in a three-year process of designing and developing a comprehensive curriculum on historical trauma with the ultimate goal of individual and community healing. The title, Iskotew Kahmahch Opikik in Cree and Biskanewin Ishkode in Chippewa, is a metaphor for each Indigenous nation to begin reclaiming itself as a people. Each Indigenous nation has to fan the fires of rebirth to begin standing as a people, as a community with a sense of knowing how to connect to the trauma of the past in order to heal. Each nation needs to be the fire that burns— healthy and resilient, integrating the past and the present as a proud people.


Cultural traumas are created when attempts are made to eradicate part or all of a culture or people. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, widely regarded as the mother of historical trauma consciousness among Native Americans, describes the phenomenon as “the cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over one’s lifetime and from generation to generation following loss of lives, land and vital aspects of culture” (Brave Heart & DeBruyn, 1998). This historical trauma is manifested in multiple ways and becomes more pronounced for each succeeding generation. As Carolyn Yoder (2005) asserts, the effects are cumulative and are seen in individual and group attitudes and behaviors in succeeding generations. The transgenerational transmission of these traumas can occur even when the next generation is not told the trauma story, or knows it only in broad outline. A “conspiracy of silence” surrounds events for which grieving and mourning have never taken place.

Unaddressed traumas affect not only those directly traumatized, but their families and future generations as well. Not releasing the trauma causes freezing, or trapping it in the nervous system. Brain researchers tell us that neurons which fire together, wire together. The more intense the experience, the tighter the neural association in the brain, making it difficult to release past memories and behaviors. Furthermore, reenactment behaviors are common in people who experience historical trauma. Such behaviors turn unhealed trauma energy against the self (acting in) or on others (acting out). Paradoxically, reenactments represent attempts to resolve the effects of trauma. Reenactment behaviors are a major public health issue and indicate that people and groups need psychosocial and spiritual help.

In addressing historical trauma at SCC, we began with these philosophical and educational tenets in mind: 1) education is an effective way to heal from our historical trauma of loss of land, loss of people, loss of family, and loss of culture; 2) each person must take responsibility for self-healing; and 3) as a communal culture, healing takes place within the context of community.

In regards to healing, we believe in: 1) Coming with gratitude— becoming more present to the wonder of being alive in this amazing world. 2) Honoring our pain—dedicating time and attention to honoring our pain ensures space for grief, outrage, and sorrow. This caring derives from our interconnectedness with all of life (a core Native belief). 3) Seeing with Native eyes—envisioning what is possible with a new understanding of our power to make a difference. 4) Going forth—clarifying our vision of how we can act for healing of our world, identifying practical steps that move our vision forward.

In teaching, we believe in the experiential—bridging theory with real world practice. We also believe in employing a high context, using multimedia formats with a variety of visuals so students can observe and listen. And we seek to be interactive, because processing in both small and large group formats helps internalize concepts and course content.


When organizing the course content, it became apparent that there were core concepts that needed to be revisited over a three-course sequence. The depth and expanse of the coverage varies from course to course. Using a spiral model (see figure 1) provided the opportunity for in-depth and repeated explorations of the key concepts of historical trauma from different perspectives, always with a focus on: What does historical trauma look like? How does it feel? What does it feel like to be healed?

The curriculum consists of three courses (three credits each), with each course organized into three units (see figure 2). These nine credits are designed to cover the topic of historical trauma in 135 hours of instruction. The three courses also serve as core requirements in several of SCC’s Associate of Science degree programs. The first course begins with an overview of the theory of historical trauma from confronting, understanding, and releasing the past to healing and transformation. Sherman Alexie’s book, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, was used as a real-world connection of how historical trauma plays out in the main character’s life. This novel was also used to illustrate the various phases of “the hero’s journey,” as articulated by Joseph Campbell (2008).

The second course revisits historical trauma but this time analyzes it by looking at the Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand. Through their life experience students gain an understanding of how historical trauma feels and what it looks like. They then step back to analyze the “acting out” behaviors (anger, rage, bullying, hypervigilance, nightmares, flashbacks, loss of capacity in working memory) and the “acting in” behaviors (depression, numbness, feeling weak or drained, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, feeling spaced out, unable to act, avoiding others).

The third course addresses historical trauma by taking a hard look at it within the community, using the qualitative research methodology of phenomenology to better understand how historical trauma is evident in the community—always looking at the solutions as well as the problems. Students receive hands-on experience in phenomenological research when they conduct 20 faceto- face interviews, gathering information from a cross section of community members ranging from young adults to elders. It was interesting to observe the students’ reactions when they began word-for-word transcriptions of these personal interviews along with an analysis of these data, noting the different themes that emerged. Suddenly, historical trauma became more real for them. Overall, SCC opted for a curriculum design that focuses on information processing and deep thinking. As illustrated in figure 3, first we begin with the big ideas and outcomes that serve as the foundation for the unit and course. Next, the assessments are linked to real-world experiences and require the student to demonstrate competence and understanding. Additionally, assessments are varied in order to appeal to the learning styles of the students, ranging from reading and writing assignments to projects, small and large group presentations, role playing, etc. Third, we develop a detailed lesson plan that gives ideas on how the actual teaching may proceed. Stage three can be adapted and modified according to time, place, and students. Lessons include readings, novels, short stories, dramatizations, discussions, video links, projects, and so on. The emphasis is always on engaging and challenging the students to understand the content and to demonstrate their understanding in their real-world contexts. Each unit has 12 to 15 lessons with options for adapting to fit the students’ needs.

When studying a phenomenon such as historical trauma, the goal is to look at the experiences from multiple points of view in order to eventually come to a sense of its essence. For example, how is historical trauma manifested today within the Rocky Boy reservation community? What do these manifestations signify for the participants and the community? Additionally, when considering the conscious aspects of a traumatic event, the researcher has to be aware and empathetic to the request of asking the participant to re-live an experience or set of experiences that may be extremely painful (Creswell, 2007).


Stone Child College has now taught the entire historical trauma curriculum during two summer terms and continues to teach it as an integral component of its overall academic curriculum. The college is hopeful that this information will help each person participating in the program to move toward the healing process, and that it will provide inspiration for the community at large, creating new stories that are alive with hope and determination reflective of a rich past not entirely lost.

V.P. Allery, Ph.D. (Cree), is a faculty member at Stone Child College. REFERENCES

Alexie, S. (2007). The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Brave Heart, M.Y.H., & DeBruyn, L.M. (1998). The American Indian Holocaust: Healing Historical Unresolved Grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 60–82.

Campbell, J. (2008). The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Novato, CA: Joseph Campbell Foundation Publishers.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. London: Sage Publications.

Yoder, C. (2005). The Little Book of Trauma Healing: When Violence Strikes and Community Security Is Threatened. Intercourse, PA: Good Books Publishing.

American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People

On June 15, 2016, after nearly 30 years of advocacy and negotiation, the Organization of American States (OAS) adopted the American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The OAS is a regional intergovernmental organization of 35 member countries of the Americas, including the United States.

The American Declaration offers specific protection for indigenous peoples in North America, Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. It affirms the right of self-determination, rights to education, health, self-government, culture, lands, territories and natural resources, and it includes provisions that address the particular situation of indigenous peoples in the Americas, including protections for those living in voluntary isolation and those affected by a state’s internal armed conflict. Article VII of the Declaration addresses Gender Equality, and includes a commitment that “States shall adopt the necessary measures, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, to prevent and eradicate all forms of violence and discrimination, particularly against indigenous women and children.”

The American Declaration is a comprehensive, regional human rights instrument and it will become one of the most important instruments of the Inter-American Human Rights System. Both the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights will interpret the Declaration to provide content to other instruments, such as the American Convention on Human Rights – the main regional human rights treaty, and the American Declaration on Rights and Duties of Man.

Throughout the negotiations, the Center played a key role in hosting preparatory meetings ahead of the negotiations with indigenous peoples from the Americas, developing proposals and strategies, and providing legal support to indigenous leaders attending the negotiations.

Click here to read entire document on Indian Law Resource Center website.

Saving Indigenous Languages Through Full Immersion!

A University of Hawaii at Hilo professor says he wants a full UH college curriculum taught in Hawaiian.

About 3,000 students are in preschool through high school Hawaiian language immersion programs at 21 sites statewide, said Larry Kimura, associate professor of Hawaiian language and language studies at UH-Hilo’s College of Hawaiian Language, Ka Haka ‘Ula o Ke‘elikolani.

“We’re trying to convince our state — the University of Hawaii is part of the state — that we need to continue Hawaiian native education at the college level as well,” Kimura said.

Already, there are families raising grandchildren of the first students who entered immersion programs in 1985.

“These kids that are being born and raised now in Hawaii are the new native speakers,” Kimura said.

They should be able to look forward to college courses in subjects such as math and chemistry taught in Hawaiian, he said. That will complete the process, he said, that needs to occur to make Hawaiian, one of two official languages of the state, once again fully integrated into everyday life.

Kimura spoke to journalists Wednesday in Hilo during the He ‘Olelo Ola Hilo Field Study, a two-day gathering of people from around the globe who are trying to save indigenous languages — and save the information passed down, through language, generation to generation.

A critical mass has been reached to help Hawaiian, once banned from being spoken in the school system, to prosper and regain widespread use, he said. All that’s needed is college-level courses to let Hawaiian speakers go from preschool to adulthood immersed in their native language.

Attendees of the field study sought to learn how to make school language immersion successful.

They came to Hilo on Monday and Tuesday and visited Hawaiian language immersion classes to get ideas about how they might incorporate what is being done successfully on the Big Island into their own schools. Participants came from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the mainland, including from states such as Arizona, Minnesota, New Mexico, Alaska and California.

They learned how to deal with “new concepts — in a language that has been sleeping for quite a while.” For example, how are topics such as apps and web games and solar panels infused into a centuries-old language?

“It’s not only about traditional things,” Kimura said. “The hardest thing is understanding how our traditions and laws are going to transition into today.”

Click here to read complete article

Building Relationships with Tribes

The passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) provides unique opportunities for states, districts, and tribes to work together to strengthen education for Native students throughout the country. The National Indian Education Association (NIEA), a powerful national educational organization, presents a clear path and framework for consultancy between tribes and school districts as well as state educational departments as mandated by law. To initiate the critical work together, NIEA is poised to support state and local agencies as they navigate the long and sometimes tragic relationship between this country and Native communities to increase opportunities for successful consultation and engagement with them. Developed in partnership with tribes, tribal education advocates, and membership of the NIEA, this resource is meant to provide states and districts the high level strategies necessary to build trusting, reciprocal, and long-lasting relationships with the Native communities in their respective regions.

Read it all here!

No More PRANKS-Giving: How the Evaluation Community Can Start Rebuilding Relations with Indigenous Communities

Koolamalsi njoos (Greetings, colleagues and friends):image1

As the newest Center for Culturally Responsive Evaluation and Assessment (CREA) Affiliate Researcher, I represent the oldest and least known communities on Turtle Island and Mother Earth: Indigenous people.  My Indigenous ancestors and relatives are on nii nooxw waak nii numoxoomus (my father Peter Bowman’s and my grandfather Morris Bowman’s) side of the family. Neekaawa Lunaapeewook waak Mohiikaneewi (they are Lenaape-Munsee and Mohican Indians).  Mohican (not the “last of” thank you very much) and Lenni-Lunaape Munsee (we were “renamed” “Delaware Indians” as we were “relocated” by the Europeans post-contact) are my Indigenous family and community members who arrived on this continent thousands of years prior to European contact in the 1400s, according to our oral traditions. For the reader’s convenience, I will continue the rest of this discussion in the language the colonial people forced upon Indigenous people when they arrived at and conquered Turtle Island (English).

We need to stop Pranksgiving, and this time of year gives us a chance to rethink Columbus and beyond!  So, as we embark on yet another “Thanksgiving” and Native American history “month” I’d like to offer a different, historical Indigenous perspective, “re-writing and re-righting” (Smith, 1999) the western narrative that the American story began when Columbus or Henry Hudson got here, and adding to or correcting the discourse and printed content which often excludes, is ignorant of, or provides a romanticized and incorrect version of Indigenous people’s perspectives, experiences, and contributions.  We were here before European contact, we’re still here surviving and thriving, and we will continue correcting the information regarding our Indigenous communities’ contributions to contemporary contexts.  This includes the wisdom and content that Indigenous people provide to modern-day educational, academic, governance, and other disciplines, topics, and contexts.

I am proud to be part of an evaluation community at CREA that is leading the way to encompass the history, values, perspectives, strengths, and contributions that our collective and strong diversity represents.  Some of these evaluation roots date back decades and some trace back centuries.  Others are unknown and/or are being re-awakened, recovered, and revived as we strive to understand our origin stories and the cultural, historical, and intellectual traditions of our Indigenous relatives and ancestors.  Undoubtedly, our awakening process is as critical to what we create as evaluators: designs, studies, publications, presentations, trainings, and transformative change that are sustained by the communities we humbly serve.  The journey as well as all the people, places, projects, and insights along the way provide a rich context in which we situationally understand more about ourselves, our traditions, our communities, and our broader academic context.

When the historical, contextual, technical, and content knowledge of Indigenous and underrepresented people is not woven into the more contemporary evaluation fabric, we are in conflict and ignoring the very mission, vision, values, and goals that our professional evaluation community (AEA) is supposed to uphold.  If we are to improve, increase, promote, and support activities that make for more effective evaluators and evaluations then as a profession, we must acknowledge, accept, and address the severe lack of equity, inclusion, ethical consideration, and legal protections critically missing from most evaluation activities, curriculum, studies, and discourse.

Current controversy provides a significant example for reflection and consideration.  Within both Indigenous and academic communities, I am often asked about the conflict surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) and the #NoDAPL counter-movement launched by human, water, and earth rights protectors from Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities.  #NoDAPL seeks to block a $3.8B, 1,100-mile fracked-oil pipeline currently under construction from the Bakken shale fields of North Dakota to Peoria, Illinois. DAPL is slated to cross Lakota Treaty Territory at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation where it would be laid underneath the Missouri River, the longest river on the continent, endangering a source of fresh water for the Standing Rock Sioux and 8 million people living downstream. DAPL would also impact many sites that are sacred to the Standing Rock Sioux and other Indigenous nations.

As a culturally responsive community, and as competent and skilled evaluators, we all must understand the cultural, contextual, historical, and legal implications of DAPL and similar projects with Indigenous communities and Tribal nations.  This is one reason why the Indigenous origin stories must be part of the broader evaluation narrative so our “intellectual” evaluative foundations are aware, accurate, informed, inclusive, comprehensive, responsive, and responsible for situating our practice within a much longer and mostly unknown, destructive history than our contemporary publications, agencies, and evaluators acknowledge. Claiming expertise, ignorance, or other falsehoods is not acceptable if we profess to be a global evaluation community.

Like many projects – research, evaluation, and otherwise – conducted with Indigenous people, DAPL has deep, destructive, and illegal historical roots.  The project is in violation of treaty rights afforded the Standing Rock Sioux as a sovereign nation, reflecting the lack of recognition of Tribes as sovereign nations that stretches back to the earliest treaties enacted in 1774 between colonists and Indigenous Tribal nations.  How many research and evaluation projects have been enacted with Indigenous communities to “extract” knowledge and data without due consideration for Indigenous ownership of that knowledge and data?  Far too many!  And this must stop, for ethical, moral, legal, and professional reasons.

Reflecting on the DAPL project reminds us that our broader evaluation community is also about power, networks, and resources.  The perspectives and experiences of the “others” or “have nots” is greatly underreported in our evaluation, academic, education, and other contexts.  We only need to look at who gets funded, published, promoted, elected, or represented on key commissions, editorial review boards, or attends “invite only” events to see that while we talk about inclusion, equity, and diversity, there is little evidence of it in our “community” of practice.  What business interests, amount of dedicated resources, and professional practices are most prevalent in our evaluation community?  It depends on whose conference and what context you are in.  But the interests, practices and viewpoints of Indigenous and other marginalized groups are consistently and significantly absent!

DAPL and the #NoDAPL movement also remind us that our broader evaluation community privileges the written word and values certain evaluation voices – largely white and male – more than others.  A content analysis of AEA journals and evaluation published literature from the 1970s to the present (n=3,305 articles) demonstrates racialized and cultural incongruence issues that are consistently seen between program participants and evaluators stemming from white privilege, wealth inequities, and inequitable distribution of wealth along cultural lines in the United States.  Similar inequities appear when we consider whose voices are heard and respected in discussion around the DAPL project.  For example, DAPL was originally routed through Bismarck, ND, but was redirected in response to the voices of the powerful and political concerns of a municipality over drinking water.  However, voices against the inequitable, unethical, and unlawful treatment of a sovereign Tribal nation remain unheard, not covered by mainstream media as human or environmental concerns.  I welcome emerging voices that tell different stories in different ways – voices like those of Carl Sack, a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who is using critical cartography as a culturally-responsive and scientifically-sound method to provide a counter-narrative to the lack of media coverage of the historic, Indigenous and #NoDAPL perspective.



Figure 1.  Sack, C. (2016). The Black Snake in Sioux country: showing the Dakota Access Pipeline reroute through unceded treaty lands and its consequences.   Retrieved from

Where are the social justice evaluators and researchers?  Who will give voice to the historic and contemporary experiences and stories of the people, land, and destruction based on forced removal and contemporary trauma and violence stemming from DAPL? How is our evaluation community holding up the mission of “generating knowledge about effective human action” when we can’t even make a joint statement about #NoDAPL, let alone send a commissioned group of evaluators to ND?  Surely, the Canadian Evaluation Society and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission give us an example of how that is done!   Inclusion and action are the responsibility of everyone who claims to be a principled evaluator within the larger the evaluation profession.  Yes, YOU are being called to action because knowing better should mean doing better!  Standing Rock is just another contemporary example of centuries of injustices, destruction, trauma, and death dealt out to Indigenous people where most of the world stood by.  I am asking you at #NoDAPL and in other contexts to stand with us as global academic #warriors in solidarity as together as transformative evaluators.  In turn, you too will be transformed.

The bottom line is that I feel at home with CREA.  This is the interdependent place where we engage as family to draw enlightenment, continue to grow, and gather support from all races, ethnicities, contexts, cultures, socio-economic, gender, orientation, different abilities, and other diversity components as strengths to stand with us on the front lines.  Processing our ancient pain or contemporary trauma continues to be largely minimized, ignored, denied, and/or aggressively blocked by most post-contact people, institutions, literature, and systems.  Truly this can be paralyzing at times, and is a problem compounded by the low numbers of Indigenous academics who can add our communities’ voices to the mainstream narrative. So we need support, solidarity, and collegial partnerships.  CREA provides the place for speaking, sharing, and celebrating all that our community brings to evaluation; it is only through the stories, sacrifices, struggles, teachings and strengths of our ancestors/relatives coupled consciously and courageously with our CREA community that many of us Indigenous academics can continue.

In closing, I offer my perspective in the most humble and sacred way.  My words and vulnerabilities are my perspectives alone and are shared within context knowing that some of my Indigenous relatives died on the longest Trail of Tears journeys, were raped and killed by colonists, and continue to be treated as sub-humans suffering, traumatized, and dying on the lands that we were forced to move onto.  Yet we find ways to survive contribute and thrive.  As Waapalaneexkweew (Flying Eagle Woman; Accompanied by the Four Eagles), it is my responsibility to use my life to keep telling our origin and contemporary stories until the day Creator takes me back to the spirit world.  And from my deeply grateful heart, I’m so honored that we’ve created more academic, educational, and community spaces to share the truths of Indigenous perspectives that will continue transform us towards a more equitable and empowered future. I feel your strength, my beautiful CREA family, and I know Indian Country does too.  Anushiik (thank you) for being in it with us for the long haul.  We are one Tribe walking the Red Road, so see you soon.

Sincerely, Critically, and Indigenously Yours,

Waapalaneexkweew and my English name is Nicole Bowman (Mohican/Lunaape), PhD

Evaluator & Researcher, University of Wisconsin-Madison (

President, Bowman Performance Consulting, Shawano WI (

If you’d like more information to contextualize my comments, I suggest the following:


Bigelow & Peterson (Eds.). (2003). Rethinking Columbus. Milwaukee, WI:  Rethinking Schools.

Deloria, V. (1988). Custer died for your sins: An Indian manifesto; with new preface. Norman: University of Oklahoma.

Deloria, V. (1995). Red earth, white lies: Native Americans and the myth of scientific fact. New York: Scribner.

Hood, S., Hopson, R. K., & Frierson, H. T. (2015). Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice.  Greenwich CT:  Information Age Publishing.

Tuhiwai Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples. Dunedin, New Zealand: Zed Books Limited.

Indigenous Youth-Developed Self-Assessment: The Personal Balance Tool

The Fresno American Indian Health Project (FAIHP) Youth Council developed and pilot tested a strength-based, holistic, and youth-friendly self-assessment tool grounded in the Medicine Wheel, a framework and theoretical orientation for teaching wellness in many tribal communities. This paper summarizes the development of the Youth
Personal Balance Tool and the methods used for tool revisions through two separate pilot studies and ongoing process evaluations across 3 years.


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